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Text SearchPDF
NameA Rainfall Climatology for Saipan: Distribution, Return-periods, El Nino, Tropical Cyclones, and Long-Term Variations
DescriptionSaipan is one of fourteen main islands of the Northern Mariana Group stretching northward from Guam. This technical report presents a description of the weather and climate of Saipan to include: general rainfall statistics, a summary of the annual distribution of rainfall, and an examination of the return periods of short-term high-intensity rainfall events; the effects of ENSO on the climate and weather of Saipan; a summary of tropical cyclones affecting the island; and, an examination of inter-annual and inter-decadal variations in mean annual rainfall.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Western North Pacific
Impact
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://www.weriguam.org/docs/reports/103.pdf
NameAMSR-E Monthly Climatology
DescriptionAMSR monthly climatologies of SST, wind speed, vapor, cloud water and rain data (2003-01 till 2006-12 inclusive). The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer is flown on Aqua polar orbiter providing full global coverage over the oceans. As a microwave instrument it, can "see" though clouds. The only obstacle is heavy precipitation. Derived measurables are SST, surface wind speed, vertical column vapor and cloud water, and rain rate. The data were acquired from the www.ssmi.com site, then averaged to produce monthly climatologies.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
  • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
  • Other
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Transportation/Communication and Commerce
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/datadoc/amsr_mon_clima.php
NameArgo Mixed Layer Depth Climatology
DescriptionWe have compiled a mixed layer depth (MLD) climatology using Argo profiles and a new hybrid method for finding the MLD. The climatology incorporates over 681,000 delayed-mode and real-time Argo profiles, collected between 2000 and 2011. The new hybrid algorithm models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of possible MLD values. It then analyzes the patterns in the suite to select a final MLD estimate. This algorithm is applied to potential density, potential temperature, and salinity profiles to obtain mixed layers for each of these properties.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
Sector
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Dynamical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://mixedlayer.ucsd.edu/
NameAverage Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Summaries for Hawaii and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands
DescriptionSummaries of Average Maximum Temperature, Average Minimum Temperature, Average Total Precipitation, and Percent of Possible Observations for Period of Record for Hawaii and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
  • Western North Pacific
  • South Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://www.wrcc.dri.edu/summary/climsmhi.html
NameClimate Information Retrieval for Hawaii
DescriptionDocumentation and analysis for Temperature and Precipitation Summary (TAPS), Wetlands Determination (WETS), Frost Free Days (FROST), and Growth Season (GROWTH).(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Terrestrial (e.g., Groundwater, Soil Moisture)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/cgibin/state.pl?state=hi
NameClimate Information Retrieval for Pacific Islands
DescriptionDocumentation and analysis for Temperature and Precipitation Summary (TAPS), Wetlands Determination (WETS), Frost Free Days (FROST), and Growth Season (GROWTH).(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Terrestrial (e.g., Groundwater, Soil Moisture)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
  • Western North Pacific
  • South Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/cgibin/state.pl?state=pi
NameClimate of Hawaii
DescriptionClimate narrative summaries and tables for the State of Hawaii.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
  • Other
Sector
  • Public Health and Safety
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Energy
  • Transportation/Communication and Commerce
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Recreation and Tourism
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.wrcc.dri.edu/narratives/HAWAII.htm
NameClimate Variability Influences on Trends in Streamflow and Precipitation Records at Selected Sites in the Pacific Islands Region
DescriptionAnalysis of streamflow and precipitation trends during different phases of ENSO and PDO at selected sites in Hawaii, American Samoa, and Western Pacific islands. Trends will be analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests and spectral analysis.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
  • Western North Pacific
  • South Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Source
NameClimatology of Tropical Cyclones in the Central Pacific Basin
DescriptionThe following graphs and charts describe some of the climatology of tropical cyclone activity in the area served by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, between 140 degrees west longitude and the International Date Line and north of the equator. Continuous satellite coverage has been available in the Central Pacific since 1971 so many climatologies start with that date. Earlier accounts of tropical cyclone activity are based on land, ship, and aircraft observations as well as some non-continuous satellite data.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
Impact
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
  • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
Sector
  • Public Health and Safety
  • Community Planning and Development
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/pages/climatology.php
NameComprehensive Pacific Rainfall Data Base
DescriptionPACRAIN consists of daily and monthly rainfall records from many sites located on atolls and islands. The database is updated monthly. An extensive set of metadata corresponding to measurement sites has been developed and data is available in an easy-to-use format which allows a client to tailor data formats to particular research needs. Data comes from NIWA, NCDC and Meteo-France Polynesia. The project has been supplemented by an extensive collection of rainfall data from schools across the Pacific participating in the Schools of the Pacific Rainfall Climate Experiment (SPaRCE).(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Western North Pacific
  • South Pacific
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://pacrain.evac.ou.edu/
NameCoral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database
DescriptionThe CoRTAD contains a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. The CoRTAD contains global, approximately 4 km resolution SST data on a weekly time scale from 1981 through 2010.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
Sector
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/Cortad/
NameCreation of a 50-Year Rainfall Database, Annual Rainfall Climatology, and Annual Rainfall Distribution Map for Guam
DescriptionSince the early 1950s, there has been considerable interest in the rainfall on Guam, especially by the U.S. military and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1950, over 60 government-sponsored rain gauge sites have operated on Guam. Unfortunately, the length of record of most of the sites is short, in many cases incomplete, and in some cases unreliable. The few rainfall distribution studies for Guam have been based on limited data. As a result, the rainfall distribution patterns have been greatly oversimplified or incorrectly analyzed, and the actual rainfall gradients have been largely ignored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the available data, then to use the acceptable data to build a 50-year rainfall database for selected sites on Guam. The resulting database provides a long-term rainfall climatology and an annual rainfall distribution map for the island.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Western North Pacific
Impact
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Location/Site Specific (Point)
Sourcehttp://www.weriguam.org/docs/reports/102.pdf
NameCurrent State of El Nino
DescriptionThe principal mode of interannual sea surface temperature variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean is associated with El Nino. A plot illustrates the spatial pattern of that variability that is succinctly described by the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF1) of the SSTs. A time-series graph shows the monthly evolution of the amplitude and phase of EOF1 from January 1950 to present. Large positive departures, shown in red, denote warm events, whereas large negative departures, shown in blue, denote cold events.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Central North Pacific
  • Western North Pacific
  • South Pacific
  • Pacific Basin
Impact
  • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
Sector
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/enso/impacts/currentclimo.html
NameEvidence for Strengthening of the Tropical General Circulation in the 1990s
DescriptionSatellite observations suggest that the thermal radiation emitted by Earth to space increased by more than 5 watts per square meter, while reflected sunlight decreased by less than 2 watts per square meter, in the tropics over the period 1985-2000, with most of the increase occurring after 1990. By analyzing temporal changes in the frequency of occurrence of emitted thermal and reflected solar fluxes, the effects of El Nino-Southern Oscillation are minimized, and an independent longer-time-scale variation of the radiation budget is identified. Similar analyses of upper tropospheric humidity, cloud amount, surface air temperature, and vertical velocity confirm that these flux changes are associated with a decadal-time-scale strengthening of the tropical Hadley and Walker circulations. Equatorial convective regions have intensified in upward motion and moistened, while both the equatorial and subtropical subsidence regions have become drier and less cloudy.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/295/5556/838.abstract
NameGISS Surface Temperature Analysis
DescriptionNASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), which monitors global surface temperatures on an ongoing basis, released an updated analysis in January 2013 that compares temperatures around the globe in 2012 to the average global temperature from the mid-20th century. The comparison shows how Earth continues to experience warmer temperatures than several decades ago. The average temperature in 2012 was about 58.3 degrees F (14.6 C), which is 1.0 degree F (0.6 C) warmer than the mid-20th century baseline. The average global temperature has risen about 1.4 degrees F (0.8 C) since 1880, according to the new analysis.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Other
Sector
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Social and Cultural Resources
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/2012-temps.html
NameGlobal Precipitation Climatology Project
DescriptionThe version 2.2 data, obtained from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, combines precipitation estimates from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) emission and scattering algorithms, GOES Precipitation Index (GPI), Outgoing Longwave Precipitation Index (OPI), rain gauges, and TOVS sounders on NOAA polar orbiting satellites. Products include: Annual Total Precipitation derived from 1988-2004 data; Individual Monthly Climatologies derived for 1988-2004; ENSO Precipitation Anomalies for all calendar months combined; ENSO November through April Precipitation Anomalies; and ENSO May through October Precipitation Anomalies.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Drought
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
Sector
  • Fresh Water Resources
  • Community Planning and Development
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
Methodology
  • In-Situ Observations
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
  • Statistical Model
Spatial Scale
  • Region/Nation (Grid)
Sourcehttp://jisao.washington.edu/data/gpcp/
NameHistorical Hurricane Tracks IMS
DescriptionThis interactive mapping application easily searches and displays global tropical cyclone data. Users are able to query storms by the storm name, ZIP Code, city, state, geographic region, or latitude/longitude coordinates. Custom queries can track storms of interest and allow for data extraction and download. Provides access to storm reports written by hurricane specialists at the National Hurricane Center. Reports are available for the Atlantic and East-Central Pacific Basins.(More…) (PDF)
ECV
  • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
  • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
Region
  • Global
Impact
  • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
  • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
Sector
  • Public Health and Safety
  • Community Planning and Development
Methodology
  • Satellite/Remote Observations
Spatial Scale
    Sourcehttp://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/tools/hurricanes/index.html
    NameIncreasing Intensity of El Nino in the Central-equatorial Pacific
    DescriptionSatellite observations suggest that the intensity of El Nino events in the central equatorial Pacific (CP) has almost doubled in the past three decades, with the strongest warming occurring in 2009-10. This is related to the increasing intensity as well as occurrence frequency of the so-called CP El Nino events since the 1990s. While sea surface temperature (SST) in the CP region during El Nino years has been increasing, those during neutral and La Nina years have not. Therefore, the well-documented warming trend of the warm pool in the CP region is primarily a result of more intense El Nino events rather than a general rise of background SST.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010GL044007/abstract
    NameInterannual and Interdecadal Rainfall Variations in the Hawaiian Islands
    DescriptionHawaii rainfall has exhibited both interannual and interdecadal variations. On the interannual time scale, Hawaii tends to be dry during most El Nino events, but low rainfall also occurred in the absence of El Nino. On the interdecadal time scale, Hawaii rainfall is negatively and significantly correlated with the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) signal; an epoch of low rainfall persists from the mid-1970s to 2001, which is preceded by an epoch of high rainfall lasting for nearly 28 yr. Difference patterns in winter rainfall are investigated for composites of extremely dry and wet winters during the dry and wet epochs, respectively. These patterns are then compared to the difference in constructive match conditions of El Nino and PDO. Relative to the El Nino/PDO stage, the magnitude of dryness during the rainfall-based stage is enhanced. The corresponding large-scale atmospheric circulation composites are studied. Similar patterns are revealed between these two stages. However, anomalously stronger and deeper sinking motions over Hawaii are revealed in the height–latitude section of the rainfall-based analysis compared to the El Nino/PDO stage. Moreover, an anomalous zonal circulation cell is well established over the subtropical North Pacific with a pronounced descending branch over Hawaii in the rainfall-based stage. The band of anomalous surface westerlies to the north of Hawaii, and the deep sinking motion as well as the anomalously vertically integrated moisture flux divergence over Hawaii are all unfavorable for rainfall in Hawaii.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourceftp://soest.hawaii.edu/coastal/Climate%20Articles/Chu%20and%20Chen%20Rainfall%20Hawaii%202005.pdf
    NameInternational Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship
    DescriptionThe IBTrACS provides tropical cyclone best track data in a centralized location to aid the understanding of the distribution, frequency, and intensity of tropical cyclones worldwide. The IBTrACS project contains the most complete global set of historical tropical cyclones available, combines information from numerous tropical cyclone datasets, simplifies inter-agency comparisons by providing storm data from multiple sources in one place, provides data in popular formats to facilitate analysis, and checks the quality of storm inventories, positions, pressures, and wind speeds, passing the information on to the user.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Community Planning and Development
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ibtracs/
    NameIsland Climate Update Bulletin
    DescriptionA monthly summary of the climate in the tropical South Pacific islands, with an outlook for the coming months, to assist in dissemination of climate information in the Pacific region. This outlook uses a Multi-Model Ensemble Tool for the Pacific Islands (METPI). This bulletin is a multi-national project with collaboration from a number of Pacific nations and support from various organizations.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • South Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Recreation and Tourism
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Dynamical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/climate/publications/all/icu
    NameLegates Surface and Ship Observation of Precipitation
    DescriptionObservation of Precipitation data set consists of a global climatology of monthly mean precipitation values, using traditional land-based gauge measurements and shipboard estimates spanning the period from 1920 to 1980. The data are corrected for gauge-induced systematic errors caused by wind, wetting on the interior walls of the gauge and evaporation from the gauge. The corrected monthly precipitation values are then interpolated to a 0.5 degree latitude by 0.5 degree longitude grid using a spherically based interpolation procedure (Legates and Willmott, 1990).This global precipitation climatology is used in verification of climate model predictions of precipitation cycles, large scale hydrological cycle and ecological studies, and evaluating climate change. This data set is archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC DAAC).(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation/documentation/readme_html/legates_gauge_precip_readme.shtml
    NameNRL Mixed Layer Depth Climatology
    DescriptionMonthly climatologies of isothermal layer depth (ILD) and mixed layer depth (MLD) have been constructed at U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). These monthly ILD and MLD fields have been used for validating the mixed layer in the early development of the global Navy Layered Ocean Model (NLOM) with an embedded mixed layer. They have also been used to study barrier layer formation in the North Pacific Ocean and to examine global ocean mixed layer depth characteristics. These ILD and MLD fields are being made available to the scientific community as the NRL Mixed Layer Depth (NMLD) climatology.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Transportation/Communication and Commerce
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Dynamical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/nmld/nmld.html
    NamePacific Climate Change Data Portal
    DescriptionThe Pacific Climate Change Data Portal has been developed through the Pacific Climate Change Science Program as part of the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative. This Australian Government Initiative aims to assist vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region, especially Pacific Island countries and East Timor, to meet high-priority climate change adaptation needs. This website provides historical point-based data for climate observing sites across the Pacific. At present, climate variables available include temperatures, rainfall and Mean Sea-Level Pressure (MSLP), at monthly, seasonal and annual timescales. Climate data is presented as time series graphs and basic site information (metadata) is provided to assist users choose the most appropriate location. The website allows quick comparisons across international borders, and puts changes at individual sites into a broader whole of the Pacific perspective.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://www.bom.gov.au/climate/pccsp/
    NamePacific Decadal Oscillation
    DescriptionThe Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is often described as a long-lived El Nino-like pattern of Pacific climate variability (Zhang et al. 1997). As seen with the better-known El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), extremes in the PDO pattern are marked by widespread variations in the Pacific Basin and the North American climate. In parallel with the ENSO phenomenon, the extreme phases of the PDO have been classified as being either warm or cool, as defined by ocean temperature anomalies in the northeast and tropical Pacific Ocean.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    • Pacific Basin
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/teleconnections/pdo/
    NamePacific Storms Climatology Products - Regional Climatology
    DescriptionPacific Storms Climatology Products provides access to an integrated suite of products that delineate patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity - "storminess"- within the Pacific region. These products will help users to explore how extreme events have been expressed historically and may be expected to be expressed in a changing climate. The Regional Climatology section provides details on how atmospheric and oceanographic features manifest as extreme events within the regions of the Pacific.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    • Pacific Basin
    Impact
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    • Other
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Community Planning and Development
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.pacificstormsclimatology.org/index.php?page=regional-overview
    NamePrecipitation Climatology for Stations in the Tropical Pacific Basin; Effects of ENSO
    DescriptionThe NOAA/NWS/Climate Prediction Center developed a precipitation climatology for 66 tropical Pacific Basin stations over the period of 1955-96 (NCEP/CPC ATLAS No. 5). The main purpose of the climatology is to establish a background for defining thresholds of rainfall deficiency amount and duration associated with drought episodes on an individual island-to-island basis.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    • Pacific Basin
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/pacdir/NINDEX22.shtml
    NamePrecipitation Frequency Estimates for Selected Pacific Islands
    DescriptionNOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5: Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the United States, Selected Pacific Islands. The estimates have been published through the HDSC Precipitation Frequency Data Server. The release includes: precipitation frequency estimates; cartographic maps of select durations/frequencies; the annual maximum series data used in the analysis; temporal distribution data; and accompanying documentation describing the data, metadata and methodology in detail.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/
    NamePrecipitation Frequency Estimates for the Hawaiian Islands
    DescriptionNOAA Atlas 14 Volume 4: Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the United States, Hawaiian Islands. The estimates have been published through the HDSC Precipitation Frequency Data Server. The release includes: precipitation frequency estimates; cartographic maps of select durations/frequencies; the annual maximum series data used in the analysis; temporal distribution data; and accompanying documentation describing the data, metadata and methodology in detail.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/
    NameQuikSCAT Monthly Climatology
    DescriptionMonthly gridded QSCAT sea wind and derived climatologies. The microwave scaterometer (QuikSCAT) flown on QuikBird satellite measures back scatter radiation in Ku-band (~ 14 GHz). The return signal power is proportional to surface stress over the ocean and that can be related to surface wind vector (u and v components) at 10 m height assuming neutral stratification. In addition to u and v components, average wind speed and surface pseudostress vector are provided. The data are remapped to 1/4 degree lat/lon map. Original data as processed by Remote Sensing System were obtained from www.ssmi.com site. Monthly data from Jan 2000 to Dec 2007 were averaged to construct the monthly climatology.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    • Other
    Sector
    • Transportation/Communication and Commerce
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/datadoc/qscat_mon_clima.php
    NameRainfall Atlas of Hawaii
    DescriptionThe Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii is a set of maps of the spatial patterns of rainfall for the major Hawaiian Islands. Maps are available for mean monthly and annual rainfall. The maps represent our best estimates of the mean rainfall for the 30-yr base period 1978–2007. However, for many reasons, it is not possible to determine the exact value of mean rainfall for any location. Therefore, for every map of mean rainfall, we provide a corresponding map of uncertainty. Uncertainty tends to be greatest where we have the poorest information about rainfall, for example in remote locations far from the nearest rain gage.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Terrestrial (e.g., Groundwater, Soil Moisture)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Recreation and Tourism
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://rainfall.geography.hawaii.edu/
    NameRainfall Climatology for Pohnpei Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
    DescriptionThis technical report presents the results of the first year of a collaborative effort between WERI and the Conservation Society of Pohnpei to measure the rainfall across the island of Pohnpei. Rain gages were placed in several locations to include the coastal perimeter, the mountain slopes, and the remote highland interior of the island. The discussion includes: general rainfall statistics, a summary of the annual distribution of rainfall, and an examination of the return periods of short-term high-intensity rainfall events; the effects of ENSO on the climate and weather of Pohnpei; a summary of tropical cyclones affecting the island; and, an examination of month-to-month, inter-annual, and inter-decadal variations in mean annual rainfall.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Western North Pacific
    Impact
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://www.weriguam.org/docs/reports/100.pdf
    NameRegional Sea Level Trends Due to a Pacific Trade Wind Intensification
    DescriptionOver the past two decades, sea level trends have increased in the western tropical Pacific Ocean with rates that are approximately three times the global average. A general circulation model is used to show that the high rates are caused by a gradual intensification of Pacific trade winds since the early 1990s. The modeled sea level change captures the spatial trend pattern in satellite altimeter sea surface heights and the temporal trend shift in tide gauge observations. In addition to the sea level response, the model is used to show how other aspects of the ocean circulation have increased appreciably in amplitude as a consequence of the trade wind intensification, including tropical surface currents, the shallow meridional over-turning circulation, the Equatorial Undercurrent, and the Indonesian Throughflow. These results highlight an ongoing shift in the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean that will continue as long as the trade wind trend persists.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Pacific Basin
    Impact
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2011GL049576/abstract
    NameSea Level Trends
    DescriptionThe NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years, with tide stations operating on all U.S. coasts through the National Water Level Observation Network. Changes in Mean Sea Level, either a sea level rise or sea level fall, have been computed at 128 long-term water level stations using a minimum span of 30 years of observations at each location. These measurements have been averaged by month to remove the effect of high frequency phenomena, such as waves and tides, to compute an accurate linear sea level trend. The trend analysis has also been extended to a network of global tide stations including 114 additional non-NOAA stations.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Transportation/Communication and Commerce
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Recreation and Tourism
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends.shtml
    NameSea Surface Temperature Climate Products
    DescriptionPlots created from NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) Version 2 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data. Graphical products include Time-Longitude/Latitude for Yearly Trends and Anomalies, as well as Latest Daily, Weekly, Monthly, and Seasonal for Totals and Anomalies.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/map/clim/sst.shtml
    NameSecular Temperature Changes in Hawaii
    DescriptionWhile the upward trend in global mean temperature has been intensively studied, some regional temperature trends are less well known. We document secular temperature changes in the Hawaiian Islands for the past 85 years based on an index of 21 stations. Results show a relatively rapid rise in surface temperature in the last 30 years, with stronger warming at the higher elevations. The bulk of the increase in mean temperature is related to a much larger increase in minimum temperatures compared to the maximum - a net warming about 3 times as large - resulting in a reduction of the diurnal range. For much of the period of record analyzed here, surface temperature in Hawaii has varied coherently with changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, in recent decades, the secular warming has begun to predominate, such that despite the recent cooling associated with the PDO, surface temperatures in Hawaii have remained elevated. The greater warming trend at the higher elevations may have significant ecological impacts.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Other
    Sector
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008GL034377/abstract
    NameSouthern Oscillation Index and TAO/TRITON Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series
    DescriptionThe TAO/TRITON array consists of approximately 70 moorings in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, telemetering oceanographic and meteorological data to shore in real-time via the Argos satellite system. The array is a major component of the ENSO Observing System, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The Southern Oscillation Index and TAO/TRITON Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series is used for improved detection, understanding and prediction of El Nino and La Nina.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    • Western North Pacific
    • South Pacific
    • Pacific Basin
    Impact
    • Coral Bleaching/Ecosystem Impacts (e.g., Marine)
    Sector
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/jsdisplay/
    NameState of the Climate Global Analysis
    DescriptionTemperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on gridded maps. The anomaly map is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network) and sea surface temperature (ERSST.v3b) anomaly analysis developed by Smith et al. (2008). Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. The Global State of the Climate report introduces percentile maps that complement the information provided by the anomaly maps. These new maps provide additional information by placing the temperature anomaly observed for a specific place and time period into historical perspective, showing how the most current month, season or year compares with the past.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Global
    Impact
    • Drought
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/
    NameTrends and Shifts in Streamflow in Hawaii, 1913–2008
    DescriptionThis study addresses a need to document changes in streamflow and base flow in Hawaii during the past century. Statistically significant long-term (1913–2008) downward trends were detected (using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test) in low-streamflow and base flow records. Downward trends were detected more commonly in base flow records than in high-streamflow, peak-flow, and rainfall records. The decrease in base flow is likely related to a decrease in groundwater storage and recharge and therefore is a valuable indicator of decreasing water availability and watershed vulnerability to hydrologic changes. Whether the downward trends will continue is largely uncertain given the uncertainty in climate-change projections and watershed responses to changes.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Terrestrial (e.g., Groundwater, Soil Moisture)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    Sector
    • Fresh Water Resources
    • Community Planning and Development
    • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Ecosystems
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.9298/abstract
    NameTropical Cyclone Climatology in the Australian Region
    DescriptionThese maps and charts are based on a statistical analysis of past tropical cyclones tracked over the Australian Region and surrounding waters.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Atmospheric (e.g., Air Temperature, Rainfall, Wind speed and direction)
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • South Pacific
    Impact
    • Heavy Rainfall/Stream Flooding/Mass Wasting
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    • Community Planning and Development
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Region/Nation (Grid)
    Sourcehttp://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/climatology/
    NameWave-driven Sea Level Anomalies at the Midway Tide Gauge as an Index of North Pacific Storminess Over the Past 60 Years
    DescriptionSixty years of sea-level data collected in the interior lagoon of Midway Atoll in the northern Hawaiian Islands are used to examine short-term (<2 days), high amplitude (up to 1 m) sea level anomaly (SLA) events that occur during the winter months. A combination of wind and wave model hindcasts, satellite altimetry product and in-situ water level data confirms that these high SLA events are driven primarily by the arrival of energetic swell waves generated by storms in the North Pacific as breaking waves on the northwest side of the atoll lead to the setup of the lagoon. The number of high SLA events recorded in Midway during each winter season correlates well with the storminess in the Central North Pacific, defined as the mean seasonal wave height. This leads us to conclude that the seasonal number of high SLA events measured at this specific tide gauge in Midway can be used as an index of storminess in the Central North Pacific over climatic time-scales. Our Midway-based index of storminess correlates well with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, and its observed increase over the past 60 years is attributed to variability associated with the PDO rather than a long-term trend.(More…) (PDF)
    ECV
    • Oceanic (e.g., Water Temperature, Salinity, Acidity, Sea Level, Wave Height)
    Region
    • Central North Pacific
    Impact
    • Coastal Flooding/Erosion
    • Other
    Sector
    • Public Health and Safety
    Methodology
    • In-Situ Observations
    • Satellite/Remote Observations
    • Statistical Model
    Spatial Scale
    • Location/Site Specific (Point)
    Sourcehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012GL052993/abstract
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